Category Archives: 2009-7

Breaking to Tie or Lead

By Judy Splitt

Breaking a calf to lead is money in the bank. Think about it….. when you go look at cattle, are you attracted to the calf that is on a halter so you can look at it and is tame? What do you think of the wild ones that want to climb the fence or have the look of a wild beast in their eyes. I know I will pay more for a calf that is halter broke when I buy it. It is worth more to me not to have a wild one. If it’s a heifer calf, I want to be able to take her in the barn to calve. If she needs help, I can halter her to assist. When we work our cows, it’s much easier to have the calm ones going through the chute. We try to have all our calves on a halter for some time.

This is how we do it. First, dress for the occasion. Long pants, boots, (preferably steel toed) and leather gloves.

We try to mess with the calves and cows so they are used to us being around them. Many of them are old show cows and will let us go up and rub their backs. The younger the better to start putting halters on them. The smaller they are the easier they are to handle. We use rope halters that have a slide on them. The slide will loosen up when they stop pulling on the halter. You can buy them with the slide or you can make your own. The halter goes over the head so the ring is on the left side with the rope pulling under
the chin. Make sure the rope is over both ears. The first few times we stay with them so they don’t hurt themselves or get wrapped up in the rope. They are tied to a solid wall or a pole so they can jump and not get their legs caught. Each time we tie them up we let them stand for longer time periods. After a few times we start feeding them while they are tied up. It doesn’t take long for them figure out that when they get tied they get fed. Next step is to brush them while they are tied up. Then we untie them and take them to water. Keep the rope short and have your hand close to the head (about 12 to 18 inches) so you have control. After a few wild trips it gets easier each time. All of this is done in a small pen or area. Talking to them is good. They get used to your voice and it will be a calming experience for them. Patience is the true key. Small steps are best. You will find the more you do it the easier it is. When you are able to lead them to water, the next step is to get them in a chute and wash them. Or maybe I should say wet them down and blow them out. It is truly amazing after a couple washes how much that helps. If they are kickers, spray water on their feet. They can kick till they figure out that the water and you are not going to hurt them. We have the radio pretty loud in the barn from time to time. This helps them so they aren’t easily spooked by noise.

There are two stages to halterbreaking: broke to lead and broke to show. If you want your animal to be broke to show we’re talking a lot more time… you need to be able to take that calf out in the yard, know how to stop, stand still and not be afraid of anything. It’s a good thing to have them tied and have a stranger come around them. It desensitizes them. When you are in the ring you don’t want your calf wanting to take flight when the judges walks toward you. If you can take them to a neighbor and unload them, it’s better to have them freak out there than at a show. You will find that your 2nd show with a calf they are calm and adjust easy to the commotion. So with that in mind take a trip to the neighbor or to a small local show to get your animals ready for the bigger show. Exposing your cattle to the public is the key to future sales.

MHBA ANIMAL HEALTH SERIES: Keeping your cattle healthy

By Peggy Joseph-Potter RN, BSN, MHA

Keeping your cattle healthy is an important method of protecting your investment in Miniature Herefords. Disease prevention and early treatment are a lot less costly than the alternative. Good animal health is a combination of knowledge, skill and a little bit of intuition that comes from knowing what is customary for your herd. The best ways to determine if your animal is displaying signs and symptoms of illness, is to learn what their norm is and then observe them daily for any variation from that expected behavior.

Observation

Observing your cattle’s physical appearance on a regular, preferably daily basis may alert you to the early warning signs of sickness or injury. Changes in behavior, such as in the intake of food or water are usually one of the first indications that something is abnormal in your animal. It may be as simple as a change in feed that is not well tolerated or a reaction to stress, such as after vaccinations, however it could also be the beginning of something more serious. Important questions to ask are: Do they socialize with their pasture mates or do they lie somewhere by themselves? Do they walk with a normal gait or are they limping? Are their eyes open and bright or are they
clouded or sunken? Do they look well-hydrated or are their noses and tongues dry, their bodies flat or skin tenting? Lethargy, weakness, depression, lack of appetite or water consumptions should set off that inner alarm that tells you something is abnormal and that it is time to investigate further.

Important animal characteristics to observe
on a daily basis are:
* Abnormal behavior (social or depressed)
* Stance, movement, back and ear position
* Nasal discharge (color and consistency)
* Rubbing or hair loss
* Fecal consistency (i.e. loose, watery or hard, blood or parasites in stool)
* Body condition
* Hair quality and quantity
* Tail carriage
* Lameness and localized swelling

Vital Signs

The most important vital signs to evaluate cattle well-being include temperature, pulse and respiratory rate. Temperature is the most useful diagnostic test that you can perform. Thermometers are readily available at most feed and vet supply outlets and stethoscopes for listening to the heart, respiratory rate and quality and rumen function
are usually available at drug and medical supply stores or over the internet.

NORMAL VITAL SIGNS IN CATTLE

Temperature
101.5(100.5-102.8)
Temperatures > 102.8 are considered a fever.
Anything below 100.5(subnormal) is also serious.

Pulse rate
Adults-50(40-70)
Calves-100-120
A stethoscope is necessary to listen to the heart
rate. Obviously you must restrain your animal first.

Respirations
20 (10-30)
Observe your cattle at rest. Respirations will be faster on a hot day.

Temperature

The temperature should be taken by inserting a well-lubricated thermometer (to prevent tearing or perforation of the tissues) into the rectum. To avoid placing it in the vulva remember the anus is always above the vulva closest to the tail. A digital thermometer is finished when it beeps, or if using the traditional glass thermometer, then it must be held in position for at least 3 minutes to get an accurate reading. Isopropyl alcohol or veterinary disinfectant should be used before and after each temperature is taken to avoid cross contamination with possible pathogens or parasites from other animals. Remember to always properly restrain your animal before taking their temperature to prevent injury to yourself and your bovine. You may also want to attach a clip or string to the handler’s end of the thermometer so that you will not lose it should the animal decide to move away.

Due to the lack of efficient thermo-regulators, the temperature in cattle may vary depending on the ambient temperature and level of excitement. Therefore these factors should be considered when evaluating for the presence of pathological fever. Excitement can increase the body temperature in cattle; therefore it is important to approach your animals in a calm and non-threatening manner. The treatment of fever is dependent on the cause and that may include viral/bacterial pathogens or even pain. Your veterinarian may recommend the use of Banamine, which is used to treat multiple symptoms and is frequently given for the management of pain or fever; you may want to think of it as “Motrin” for cattle; available by prescription only, this should be another staple for your “Doc Box.”

Pulse or heart rate

The pulse represents the surge of blood as it flows through the heart after contraction of the ventricles. It can best be found by locating it at the angle of the lower jaw bone where it can be felt by pressing the artery against the bone. The heart rate indicates beats per minute; therefore multiply by 2 for a 30 second pulse or by 4 for a 15 second pulse. You may want to practice taking the pulse on healthy animals to gain experience and to get a feeling for the abnormal.

The heart rate may also be determined by listening to the left side of your animal’s chest with a stethoscope after the proper restraint has been applied. If you have a squeeze chute this is the most efficient place to perform your physical exams as it limits their movement and improves your visibility. Normal healthy cattle have a heart rate between 60-80 beats per minute with calves at 100-120 beats per minute.

Respirations

Respirations equal the number of breaths per minute taken by your animal. This can be performed by either watching the flank or the nostril movement or by listening to the chest wall with a stethoscope. Again, this is a function you want to evaluate while your cattle are at rest as stress or excitement can accelerate the respiratory rate. Of the most concern is an increase in respirations in the presence of cough and fever. This is a likely indication of an upper respiratory infection such as pneumonia. If present, this is the time to contact your veterinarian or to follow pre-established veterinary protocols.

Rumen-The 4th Vital Sign

For ruminant animals such as cattle, the evaluation of rumen activity is another important facet of an animal wellness assessment. The rumen can be equated to a large mixing barrel that turns over periodically to blend the contents of any ingested feed. The normal rate for rumen contraction is two to four times per minute. The best method to evaluate this activity is by placing a hand or stethoscope on the left flank of your animal. The slowing or absence of rumen contraction may signal early signs of fever, dehydration or gastric trauma related to the ingestion of metal or other foreign substances. An increase in contractions or activity is usually a sign that the animal has or is about to have diarrhea.

Know what is normal

The key to any animal wellness assessment is to know what is normal for your cattle. By making frequent observations and assessments under stable conditions it becomes less difficult to detect subtle changes that are a common sign of abnormal health.

Abnormal Herd Health Warning Signs

* Abnormal vital signs
* Lethargy, weakness or depression
* Signs of dehydration
* A change in food or water consumption
* Loss of body weight
* A change in stool color, consistency or presence of blood/parasites
* A change in color, frequency or amount of urine; straining to urinate
* Abnormal discharge from nose, eyes, mouth or reproductive tract
* Solitary behavior in a normally social animal
* Skin abnormalities such as wounds, hair loss, or swelling
* Irregular breathing, coughing, gagging or retching
* Swollen joints or lameness

Good animal husbandry practices include knowing your resources and when to contact your veterinarian. Many veterinary practices offer a ranch assessment service that includes instruction on livestock physical assessment, wellness protocols and recommended medication regimens. These initial evaluations may be costly on the front end.
However, their future benefits can reduce the time, expense and stress related to the management of a herd wellness program.

Bibliography
Haynes, N. B. (1978). Keeping Livestock Healthly. North Adams,
MA: Storey Publishing, L.L.C.
Langlois, C. (n.d.). Signs of Sickness. Hobby Farms .
McNeal, D. L. (January/February 2007). Basic Farms Husbandry
Skills. Hobby Farms .
Thomas, H. S. (1998). Storey’s Guide to Raising Beef Cattle. Storey
Publishing, L.L.C.

Biography
Peggy and her husband, B ob Potter, own and operate PJ Ranch
LLC in Winton, California where she serves as the Vice President of
Animal Health. They have been Miniature Hereford owners and
active participants in the MHBA since 2002. She is also employed
as a critical care nurse for a local medical center.

Beginning the Polled Miniatures

By John & Betty Johnson

Our quest for a smaller better beef animal began in mid 1993. When looking for some use for our small acreage, we found an ad for Point of Rocks Ranch in a cattle trade magazine.

Our daughters, Jayme and Jeanna had both shown Polled Herefords in 4-H and we had put together a small registered cow herd in Straitside’s name.

At this time Jayme was finishing her junior college and going off to Rawhide Tech in California for an Agri-Equine Education. Jeanna was soon to be out of the nest and though still showing Herefords, was developing an interest in raising pigs from her own sows. Betty and I began to be concerned with the amount of labor required of us and asked ourselves: What did we want to do with our land and our time, considering my upcoming retirement? We agreed that we’d like a small, agricultural, profitable endeavor which we could mostly handle ourselves.

At one time Betty suggested we look into ostriches! This sent me on an all out search for anything but ostriches! At this time I found Largent’s Ad for Miniature Herefords.
After several conversations with Roy Largent, we agreed on an arrangement that would establish Straitside Ranch as the beginning of development of Polled Miniature Herefords using our Registered Polled Herefords and Largent’s Horned sires. This arrangement was to last some 12 plus years and was always an agreeable/workable situation. We’ve felt much gratitude to the Largents for their integrity throughout those years.

In the fall of 1993 Roy and family brought us Nugget 28, the first of 4 horned sires we used on our polled cattle. Nugget 28 and Semen from Nugget 13 gave us 9 calves
in the spring of 1995. We were in the Miniature Hereford business and the next 15 years of calf crops have been dedicated to removing horns and downsizing. Through selective breeding we’ve built a line of short, stocky, beefy polled miniatures.

Also, we’ve seen and participated in the establishment of local Miniature Hereford shows at our county fair and county fairs in the closest two other counties. We were there at the very first competitive national show at the Cow Palace in San Francisco in 1997; the first State Fair in Oregon in 1999; San Antonio in 2000 and 2001; and Austin in 2005.

In the fall of 1999, we were greatly blessed with the birth of “Tracer.” This bull was the first frame 0, fully polled, bull with abundant thickness throughout . He would prove
to be the foundation for our herd for years. Tracer removed horns and improved conformation to such a degree that he helped us jump ahead 10 years in development.
Tracer’s offspring have taken numerous top spots in major national shows.

Straitside is continuing to improve the Polled Miniature Hereford and 2009’s
calf crop is meeting our expectations.
Recently the establishment of Capeside Farm, Fayetteville, N.C. by our kids Ben and Jayme Williams provides another venue for viewing our bloodlines.

This fall we will have a few select cattle for sale as well as semen. Consider a polled sire to begin removing horns from your herd.